Cape Town is the second most populous city in the Republic of South Africa preceded only by Johannesburg. It is the legislative capital of the country because it is the seat of the National Parliament and was the capital of the former province of El Cabot. This city of centuries of history linked fundamentally to port commerce is famous for its port, as well as for its diversity in terms of flora, geographical features such as Table Mountain and Punta Del Cabot. In 2007 it was considered by the National Geographic magazine as one of the 20 most beautiful cities in terms of geographical diversity and has been recognized for the use of such conditions for the benefit of tourism.
Cape Town the capital city of South Africa was founded in 1652 by Jan van Reinbeck as a supply base for the Dutch East India Company (in Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Companies, VOC), and is the oldest European city of South Africa. It remained under Dutch authority, assisted by the presence of a French garrison, from 1781 to 1795 until it was taken over by the British army in 1795 during the Napoleonic Wars.
For a short period of time the colony was again under Dutch control in 1803, and it was again occupied by British troops in 1806. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, prior to the construction of the Suez Canal, City the Cape was an important supply station for ships. It became the capital of the British Colony of the Cape in 1814 and was later established as the legislative capital of the South African Union (1910-1961), a function it currently holds as the seat of the National Assembly of the Republic of South Africa.
In 1948, the National Party emerged victorious in an election that promised laws of racial segregation, known collectively by the word Afrikaans apartheid. As a result of the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas of the country and cities according to race, formerly multiracial suburbs were cleared of illegal or demolished residents. The most famous example of this in Cape Town is District 6, which was demolished in 1965, forcing the movement of nearly 60,000 residents after it was declared a region for whites only. Many of them were relocated to the Cape Plains. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a “preferably mestizo labor area” excluding African blacks .
Cape Town was the birthplace of many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement, despite the imprisonment of the leaders on Robin Island , a penitentiary island 10 kilometers offshore, many famous political prisoners were locked up for many years. In one of the most important moments that marked the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made public his decades-long speech on February 11, 199 or from the balcony of the municipal building of Cape Town hours after being released. His speech announced the beginning of a new era for the country and the first South African democratic election took place four years later, on April 27, 1994.
Since 1994, the city has had to face serious problems such as AIDS, the tuberculosis and the emergence of related crimes drug, which has given the city one of the highest rates of homicide in the world, although since 2004 the Crime rates in the city have fallen by 90%, causing the population increase in the central districts. The poor quality of public transport has been pointed out. At the same time, the economy has re-emerged at unprecedented levels, due to the boom in tourism and the real estate industries.
Since the end of Apartheid, Cape Town remains the stronghold of the political opposition to the ANC, being the only major city governed by the opposition. Cape Town is ranked No. 85 among 215 cities in the world for its level and quality of life, being the first city in South Africa, and Africa, according to this ranking made by the “Mercer Human Resources Consulting” and its mayor Helen Zale has been named the best mayor of the year 2008 (in its three years of government the city’s GDP grew by 12%, crime fell by 90% and unemployment fell from 21 to 18%). This award has been endorsed by the results of the general elections of 2009, in which the “Democratic Alliance” has obtained 51.5% and 51% of the votes in the province and the city respectively.
During 2010, the city was a sub-site of the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa, playing decisive and important matches in the qualifying stage, the round of 16 and the semifinal.
It is located at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula and is one of the main ports and industrial centers of South Africa. The peripheral neighborhoods and satellite cities of the metropolitan area, which has grown rapidly, extend southward and along the Cape Peninsula to the False Bay (Vaalsbaai). The old part of the city, with its tall buildings and scattered neighborhoods, lies between Mesa Bay to the north and the rugged slopes of Mt. Mesa (1,086 m) to the south. Several lower elevation mountains, such as Lion’s Head to the southwest and Signal Hill to the west, rise above the city facing the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Town is a popular holiday resort famous for the beauty of its landscapes and its magnificent beaches.
The port activities are concentrated in a huge artificial harbor located in the bay of Mesa and equipped with dry docks and modern facilities for loading and unloading. It is a port of regular scale for merchandise and passenger ships that come from the Cape of Good Hope in the south. The main exports are gold, diamonds and citrus. The most important industries are engaged in oil refining, ship construction and repair, diamond cutting, printing, food preparation and leather goods manufacturing. To Know more about the capital cities of different countries visit: http://www.nationalpedia.com/capital-cities-list/.